पृष्ठ

Adolf Hitler biography

Adolf Hitler

biography

adolf hitler
adolf hitler
Adolf Hitler was born in 1889 at Braunau in Austria. His father was a minor custom’s official and his mother a peasant girl. At school Hitler was a poor student and he never completed high school. His heart was set on painting and because of want of talent he failed to get admission in the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, though he applied twice.
He lived in Vienna on a shoe string budget and passed his time painting second rate postcards. He developed a passion for politics. His favorite haunt became night shelters that gossiped over free soup and politics. Hitler had no other passion. Wine, women and wealth held no attraction for this young man. Hitler soon became acquainted with power for the first time and this lust for power was to seduce him and put him on the path of mass annihilation some years later.

Army


The years at Vienna afforded him time to read and it is through these readings he developed anti democratic and anti-Jewish convictions. A keen admiration for the outstanding individual and contempt for the masses such became his philosophy. These strains of thought took further shape when he got permission from King Ludwig Iii of Bavaria to join the German army in World War I.
Hitler distinguished himself as a soldier during the World War I and he won the Iron Cross. But no record exists as to what he won the cross for. His sense of commitment to the war was almost fanatic, so recalled his fellow soldiers. The obsession with war set him apart from the others. Anti Jewish sentiments became stronger and the pro German stance well ingrained. Hitler began to believe in the superiority of the Aryan race and would often spend hours haranguing his fellow soldiers on the subject. His eccentric style left a lasting impression on all those who came in contact with him during those early days. People could not easily forget his piercing eyes that arrested the beholder in an uncanny hypnotic glare. This psychological mass hypnosis was responsible for Hitler’s rise in power later on.

politics

Hitler joined the political department of the German Army in Munich after the war. He founded the National Socialist Party. It consisted of various patriotic groups of men and ex soldiers. They were an active band of revolutionary and counter revolutionary plotting that ultimately challenged the Bavarian government under Ludendorff. Hitler continued to spread his gospel of racial hatred and contempt of democracy. He believed in Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest to an extreme degree. The weak must be annihilated and had no right to survive. He organized meetings, and terrorized political foes with his personal bodyguard force the Sturmabteilung (SA, or Storm Troopers). He soon became a key figure in Bavarian politics, aided by high officials and businessmen. In November 1923, a time of political and economic chaos, he led an uprising (Putsch) in Munich against the postwar Weimar Republic, proclaiming himself chancellor of a new authoritarian regime. Without military support however the Putsch collapsed. As a leader of the plot Hitler was sentenced to five years imprisonment and served nine months. In jail he dictated his autobiography Mein Kampf (My Struggle). It was a semi educated attempt at putting down his thoughts that had little substance in it. The book dealt more with Hitler's future plans.
The failure of the uprising taught Hitler that the Nazi Party must use legal means to assume power. Released as a result of general amnesty in December 1924 he rebuilt his party without interference from those whose government he tried to overthrow. When the Great Depression struck in 1929, he explained it as a Jewish-Communist plot, an explanation accepted by many German's. Promising a strong Germany, jobs, and national glory he attracted millions of voters. Nazi representation in the Reichstag (parliament) rose from 12 seats in 1928 to 107 in 1930.
Hitler used the dark forces of German nationalism unsparingly. During the following two years the party kept expanding, benefiting from fear of growing unemployment, fear of Communism. Hitler’s self certainty and the diffidence of his political rivals finally placed him as the Chancellor of the Reich in January 1933.
Once in power Hitler's amoral rootlessness made him the dictator of Germany where his mere whim became the law of the land. He looked at his fellow humans as mere bricks in theworld structure that he wished to erect. Hitler’s regime on taking charge passed the Enabling Act that permitted Hitler’s government to make laws without the legislature. The Nazi domination began. Without the moderating power of the legislature Hitler’s Nazi party went rampant in establishing their influence in all sectors of the German life. The bureaucracy, the judiciary the labour unions, the economy, the media cultural activities, all bore the Nazi stamp. An individual's livelihood became dependent on his or her political loyalty. Thousands of anti Nazis were taken to concentration camps and all signs of dissent were suppressed.Completing the work of unification stated by Bismarck Hitler in February 1934, made the governments of the States of Germany completely subordinate to the Reich. Hundreds of followers of the Nazi Party were summarily shot in order to purge the party of semi of anti loyalists. Hitler relied heavily on the secret police, the Gestapo, and on jails and camps to intimidate his opponents. His armament drive wiped out unemployment. He discredited the churches with charges of corruption and immorality and imposed the Nazi code on them.
Hitler’s foreign success impressed the German people who by then believed in the racial superiority of the Aryan race of which Hitler claimed Germans were the highest form. His acute sense of reality and his ability to take risk was much admired throughout Germany. He reoccupied the Rhineland in March 1936. When the Spanish Civil War began in July 1936, Hitler supported Nationalist leader Francisco Franco, supplying airplanes and weapons. German aid to Franco gave Hitler the opportunity to test his strategies and weapons technology. In October 1936 Hitler signed a pact with Italy’s Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. In November 1936 he signed an Anti-Comintern treaty with Japan. In 1940 Germany signed a tripartite alliance with both Italy and Japan, pledging mutual support.
In order to get Lebensraum or living space for agriculture and industry Hitler believed the Germany needed to expand. In 1938 when Hitler occupied Austria claiming Germans were being persecuted, he encountered no resistance. In September 1938, stating the Germans in the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia were being oppressed, he encouraged them to make demands on the Czechoslovakia government that it could not fulfill. Thus Germany had an excuse for marching into Czechoslovakia. Britain and France feared the outbreak of war and agreed to the Munich Pact, which gave Sudetenland to Germany in exchange for Germany's promise not to take additional Czech territory. However by March 1939 Hitler had brought the remainder of Czechoslovakia under German control. He was actively preparing for an aggressive maneuver towards the east.
Germany signed a nonaggression pact with the Union of Soviet Republics (USSR) in August 1939 and in the pact the two countries secretly divided up Poland. Having neutralized the USSR, Hitler attacked Poland in September 1939. The Poles were quickly overpowered, and their allies, the British and the French, who had declared war on Germany, would do nothing to help. In the spring of 1940 Hitler’s forces overran Denmark and Norway and a few weeks later routed the Netherlands, Belgium and France. The defeat of Britain was averted by the Royal Air Force, which fended off the German Luftwaffe.
Hitler invaded the USSR in June 1941, driven by his need of land and his hatred of communism. Confident of an early victory his army did not take provisions for the winter. The Germans were almost successful in reaching Moscow and Leningrad but the Soviet army’s counter attack made them powerless. The overwhelmingly large army and the entrance of the United States into the war broke the spirits of the German army. As time passed defeat became more likely. Hitler refused to surrender. In 1944 a group of German officials attempted to assassinate Hitler, but the attempt failed.
Throughout the expansion of Germany one thing that remained a constant aim was the extermination of the Jews. In 1942 Hitler met with high ranking officials of the Reich to create the final solution to the Jewish problem. The Germans began building large extermination camps to accompany the concentration camps. Six million Jews were murdered in these camps. Endless trains took millions of Jews to the camps, seriously interfering with the war effort. Hitler's ant Jewish campaign is an example of fundamentally the cruelest anti human crusade that this century has witnessed.

Death

Hitler’s suicide on April 30 1945 with his new bride and long time companion Eva Braun marked an end the bloodiest chapter recorded in modern history. No statesman had ever been in touch with the irrational forces of human nature as was Adolf Hitler. His success was mainly due to the powerful irrational feelings that his impassioned oratory evoked in the audience. Invocation of mass hysteria in the midst of a thumping beat of drums, huge slogans massed bands and stalwart bearers presented the most conducive environment for achieving his goals.

Legacy

Hitler left behind a legacy of horror that the future generations only look at with disgust and revolt. The depths of evil to which man can stoop were fully exemplified by Hitler’s anti Semitic drive. The Jewish holocaust has left scars centuries will not heal and each time posterity points its finger the name of Adolf Hitler will raise shamelessly on the pages of history.

No comments:

Post a Comment